james mckay dot net
because there are few things that are less logical than business logic

Posts tagged: mercurial

Martin Fowler and feature branches revisited

Fábio asks me this by e-mail:

I found this very interesting article (http://web.archive.org/web/20110721063430/http://jamesmckay.net/2011/07/why-does-martin-fowler-not-understand-feature-branches/) that once was in your blog, and it seems it can only be accessed in the archive, or at least I was not able to find it in the live version of your blog.

Is there a reason for that? Do you still keep the same opinion? If not, can you give me a quick hint of what to read to reach the same conclusion?

In answer to his question, I took the original blog post down in January 2013 along with everything else on my blog, because I wanted to give it a complete reboot. In the years since then, I’ve restored some of them going as far back as 2009,  but I hadn’t restored that particular post, mainly because I felt that I’d been too confrontational with it and it hadn’t made me look good. However, since it’s out there in archive.org, and people are still asking about it, I’ve now restored it for historical reference. Unfortunately, I haven’t restored the comments because I no longer have a backup of them.

A bit of historical background.

I wrote the original post in July 2011. At the time, distributed version control tools such as Git and Mercurial had been around for about six years, but were still very new and unfamiliar to most developers. Most enterprise organisations were deeply entrenched in old-school tools such as Subversion and Team Foundation Server, which made branching and merging much harder and much more confusing than necessary, most corporate developers were terrified of the concept, and vendors of these old-school tools were playing on this fear for all it was worth. This was intensely frustrating to those of us who had actually used Git and Mercurial, could clearly see the benefits, and yet were being stonewalled by 5:01 dark matter colleagues and managers who didn’t want to know. To us, Subversion was The Enemy, and to see someone of Martin Fowler’s stature apparently siding with the enemy was maddening.

On the other hand, these tools weren’t yet quite enterprise ready, with only weak Windows support and rudimentary GUIs. SourceTree was not yet a thing. Furthermore, the best practices surrounding them were still being thrashed out and debated by early adopters in the blogosphere and at conferences. In a sense, nobody properly understood feature branches yet. If you read all the discussions and debates at the time, we didn’t even agree about exactly what feature branches were. Martin Fowler, Jez Humble and others were working with the assumption that they referred to branches lasting several days or even weeks, while people such as Adam Dymitruk and myself went by a much broader definition that basically amounted to what we would call a pull request today, albeit with the proviso that they should be kept as short as possible.

These days, of course, everybody (or at least, everybody who’s worth working for) uses Git, so that particular question is moot, and we can now freely discuss best practices around branching and merging as mature adults.

The state of the question in 2017.

I’m generally somewhat more sympathetic to Martin Fowler’s position now than I was six years ago. Most of his concerns about feature branches are valid ones. Long-lived feature branches can be difficult to work with, especially for inexperienced teams and badly architected codebases, where big bang merges can be a significant problem. Feature branches can also be problematic for Continuous Integration and opportunistic refactoring, so they should very much be the exception rather than the rule. Feature toggles can also provide considerable benefits. You can use them for A/B testing, country-specific features, premium features for paying customers, and so on and so forth. I even started writing my own .NET-based web framework built around feature toggles, though as I’m no longer working with .NET, it’s not being actively developed.

However, many of my original points still stand. Short-lived branches, such as pull requests, are fine, and should in fact be the default, because code should be reviewed before it is integrated, not after the fact. Furthermore, if you’re using feature toggles solely as a substitute for branching and merging, you are releasing code into production that you know for a fact to be immature, untested, buggy, unstable and not fit for purpose. Your feature toggles are supposed to isolate this code of course, but there is always a risk that the isolation could be incomplete, or that the toggle could be flipped prematurely by mistake. When feature branches go wrong, they only go wrong in your development environment, and the damage is relatively limited. When feature toggles go wrong, on the other hand, they go wrong in production—sometimes with catastrophic results.

Just how catastrophic? The feature toggles article on Martin Fowler’s own website itself cites an example where badly implemented feature toggles cost one company $460 million in just 45 minutes. The company concerned, we are told, “went from being the largest trader in US equities and a major market maker in the NYSE and NASDAQ to bankrupt.” To be fair, there were other problems—they relied extensively on manual deployment processes, for example—but it is still a cautionary tale for anyone who thinks feature toggles should always be viewed as a Best Practice without exception.

Of course, not all feature toggles carry this level of risk, and in many cases, the effects of inadvertent exposure will be mostly harmless. In these cases, feature toggles will indeed be the better option, not least because they’re easier to work with. But in general, when deciding whether to use a feature branch or a feature toggle, always ask yourself the question: what would be the damage that this feature would cause if it were activated prematurely? If it’s not a risk you’re prepared to take, your code is better off on a separate branch.

Mercurial is doing better than you think

Here’s something interesting that I came across the other day. Apparently, Facebook has recently switched from Git to Mercurial for source control for its internal projects, and on top of that, they have hired several key members of the core Mercurial crew, including Matt Mackall, the Mercurial project lead.

Their main reason for this decision is performance: some of Facebook’s repositories are so large that they are bringing Git to its knees. They looked at the Git source code and the Mercurial source code and felt that the latter would be easier to fine tune to give them the performance that they needed.

This is an interesting development. With Git now on the verge of overtaking Subversion to the most widely used SCM in corporate settings, it’s tempting to write off Mercurial as something of a lost cause. Back in January, when I posted a suggestion on the Visual Studio UserVoice forums that Microsoft should support Mercurial as well as Git in Team Foundation Server, I thought it would be doing well to get three hundred votes and then plateau. But as it stands, it’s now passed 2,500 votes and still going strong, making it the tenth most popular open request on the forums and the second most popular request for TFS in particular, with nearly twice as many votes as the original DVCS request had. Git may have cornered the market for open source collaboration, but its unnecessarily steep learning curve and often pathological behaviour make it surprisingly unpopular with the majority of developers for whom public collaboration on open source projects is not a priority.

It’ll be interesting to see the outcome of this, but one thing is for certain: it’s not all over yet.

On Git’s growth and the reliability of the Eclipse survey

I’ve had quite a few comments on my blog post about Git questioning my conclusions, so I thought I’d better follow them up, since my original post didn’t make it entirely clear why I’d come to the conclusions that I had.

Why did I write this post?

Because Git’s growth exceeded my best-case expectations by a significant margin.

Up to now there’s been a possibility (and quite a plausible one at that) that Git’s popularity might be an illusion, thanks to the echo chamber of the blogosphere and its noisy fanboy culture, and that its usage might be largely restricted to open source projects, Ruby on Rails shops, and hobbyists, with little traction in corporate settings. This is what the Subversion folks would like us to believe:

Greg Stein, an Apache vice chairman and vice president of the Subversion project, suggests that Git’s rise may not be a deep one. “I think a lot of what we’re seeing is that Git has got a lot of mind share. [But] I don’t know if it’s necessarily true that a lot of corporate development shops are switching [to Git],” he says.

In the past year or so, there’s been some anecdotal evidence coming to light against this position, but no conclusive quantitative surveys up to now showing the extent of Git’s adoption in the enterprise. But the past three years have given us enough data to start coming up with some testable predictions as to what this year’s results would be, to confirm whether or not this might be the case.

In the end, Git’s result was significantly higher than even my most optimistic prediction, which leaves little or no room for argument on this one. Any claims that it hasn’t yet “crossed the chasm” are now quite frankly preposterous. The myth that it is not suitable for enterprise settings has been well and truly busted.

Busted!

Isn’t this just fanboyism?

I’d just like to clarify in response to this one that I’m not a Git fanboy. I still have a strong preference for Mercurial, and have no intention of stopping using it in the immediate future. It is much more polished, much easier to learn, much more predictable, and all in all a much better advert for what distributed version control should be. It’s also much more powerful than Git users give it credit for, and much less intimidatingly elitist. In any case, I can always use hg-git to integrate it with Git repositories if necessary.

Git versus Mercurial is The Hunger Games of programmingPersonally, I feel that the software development world has been bullied into accepting Git instead by people who have insisted on treating the whole DVCS scene as if it were The Hunger Games, and if they’d only just recognised that the first and most important rule of marketing is that first impressions count the most, we’d have got to where we are now a whole lot faster.

In actual fact, many people who use Git are unhappy with it. It’s rather telling that Git not only has more “hates” on amplicate.com than TFS, but a higher ratio of “hates” to “loves.” Maxx Daymon says this:

Of the shops I know that have converted to git, it was driven by an aggressive few, and the majority of developers are and remain unhappy about it. They may get over it, but they certainly haven’t become git evangelists in the process.

Yes, Git has won, but it’s won a battle that it had no business fighting in the first place. Whether we like it or not, it’s well on its way to becoming the industry standard, so we just need to get used to it, like every other industry standard. (Heck, who in their right mind still thinks that XML was a good idea?)

Do the survey’s demographics affect my conclusions?

Two or three people asked me about potential sources of bias in the survey. While there will be demographic factors at work, as far as I can tell, these tend to reinforce my conclusions rather than undermine them.

The survey’s demographics are Eclipse users. Eclipse is a Java IDE, a whole lot of related tools, and the organisation (the Eclipse Foundation) that oversees their development. Java is, by some accounts, the most widely used programming language in the world, but it is not a trendy or cool language to work with like Python or Ruby (Android development notwithstanding), and Eclipse is not a trendy or cool IDE to use, so the chances are high that if you’re using it, you’re getting paid for it. In fact, the survey actually asked this question: only 3.8% of respondents were individuals, not associated with any organisation, and 6.7% were students.

The biggest area that is under-represented here is, obviously, Microsoft developers. This means mainly that we have little or no idea as to TFS’s market share. It also means that Mercurial usage may be under-represented too, but anecdotal evidence seems to suggest that there is a general drift away from Mercurial towards Git in the Microsoft world as well.

I wondered if Android development could be skewing the results, since Git is the de jure standard SCM for Android development, and Eclipse is the IDE recommended by Google. However, only 4.1% of respondents said that they are primarily developing mobile applications, so I don’t think that’s much of a factor after all.

All in all, it seems clear to me that we have a pretty enterprisey demographic here, certainly not one composed of early adopters and innovators. In fact, if anything, early adopters and innovators are probably under-represented. Besides, if this survey really had been influenced by early adopters and innovators, they would have shown a much higher result for Git last year as well.

There is one other issue to be addressed here. 84% of the respondents to the survey write code in their spare time, so perhaps they are early adopters and innovators after all? In actual fact, this wouldn’t make the slightest bit of difference to the survey outcome for the following reason. Any software development team will contain a mixture of early adopters, of pragmatists, of conservatives, and of laggards. But they will all use the same primary source control system. Early adopters in Subversion shops will tick the Subversion box wishing they could be ticking the Git box instead. Mercurial fans in Git shops will tick the Git box wishing they could be ticking the Mercurial box instead. Maybe some people in Git shops will tick the Git box wishing they could be ticking the Subversion box instead. And so on.

The fact remains that these are corporate developers working in corporate shops telling us what their companies are using, not what they are trying to get their companies to use.

Isn’t this an argumentum ad populum?

The implication here is that argumentum ad populum (the idea that the most popular tool is the best) is a fallacy.

This overlooks the fact that at a certain point, increased mindshare does start to produce tangible benefits. Development proceeds faster. More products and services are released that support it. It becomes easier to recruit developers who are familiar with it. It becomes easier to find training for it. The gap between it and the alternatives widens, making it an even more compelling option. The effect becomes self-reinforcing and can even end up with the leading product establishing itself as a standard. Economists call these factors “network effects,” and they are the reason why, for example, the inefficient, uncomfortable and wrist-trashing qwerty keyboard layout still has an iron grip on typing, and we have so much difficulty persuading people to consider technically better alternatives such as Dvorak or Colemak.

We’re seeing this with Git. An increasing number of services are coming online that only support Git: high profile examples include Github and Heroku. Bitbucket introduced Git support back in the autumn, only a year and a half after declaring that it would never do so. Windows Azure has first-class support only for Git and TFS, with neither Subversion nor Mercurial getting so much as a mention. Some of the Git IDEs may still be rough around the edges now, but what will they be like in a year’s time?

Another effect of increasing mindshare is that Git is turning into an industry standard. For open source, it has been the de facto standard for some time now for starters. For some areas, it is even the de jure standard. If you want to do Ruby on Rails development, or Linux kernel development, or jQuery plugin development, or Android development, or Node.js development, for example, it’s simply not up for discussion: you use Git. This may not yet be the case for whatever area of development you are involved with, but it’s only a matter of time.

Don’t tools and languages come and go ridiculously quickly?

One objection was that fashions in software development tools and languages change very quickly and developers are a pretty fickle bunch.

In actual fact, this is only true for languages and tools that are currently in vogue with the cool kids. Once something approaches the top of the mainstream, it’s a completely different ball game.

Let’s consider programming languages as an example. At the moment, there is a lot of excitement around languages such as CoffeeScript, Clojure and Scala. CoffeeScript recently entered the top ten on Github, for instance. However, if you look at the Tiobe Index, you’ll see that these languages are all fairly low down the overall popularity list. Question tags on Stack Overflow and searches of job listings paint a similar picture. The list of top ten programming languages in industry changes at a rate that can best be described as glacial. Tiobe Software noted last month that the only change to their top ten list in the past eight years has been that Objective-C is in and Delphi is out. This is understandable, because once code has been written, it tends to stick around.

Source code management tools are another area where change at the top is slow. Again, you can understand why. Your source control system has been entrusted with the safekeeping of your intellectual property — your assets, your team’s entire commercial value. It also sits at the heart of your processes and infrastructure, and changing it for another system is a major undertaking and not a decision to be taken lightly. When you do change, you do so as a carefully planned exercise spanning months or even years.

For this reason, I didn’t expect Git to poll much more than about 20% or so this year. The fact that it has gone from less than 13% market share to more than 27% in a single year is quite extraordinary, and not to be taken lightly. It’s now up near the top of the mainstream — a position from which it won’t easily be shifted — and if its current rates of growth continue, it’s on course to overtake Subversion to become the most widely used SCM industry-wide within a matter of months.

What results did I expect, and why?

Based on the figures from previous years, I expected Git to poll somewhere in the 18-20% range.

The best possible scenario would have been where Git grew industry-wide at roughly the same rate as Github. Github reached one million users in mid-August, and today, it has grown to just over 1.7 million — a year on year growth of about 90%. If Git usage industry-wide continued at this rate, we would expect it to score about 24% in the survey. However, due to the natural conservatism of corporate development shops, I thought this would be an upper limit — and a pretty unlikely one at that.

On the other hand, if Greg Stein’s analysis proved to be correct, and Git adoption really was hitting a roadblock in corporate settings, I would have expected to see its growth over the past year to have slowed: perhaps somewhere in the region of 16%, mainly because Git has been close to saturation point among high-profile open source projects and Rails shops for quite some time now. Open source projects which have only recently migrated, such as Django and MediaWiki, are fairly late adopters in this respect, and ones that are still clinging to Subversion, such as WordPress and Apache, are notoriously conservative.

The results for Mercurial took me by surprise, however. I expected it to have grown slightly — possibly as high as 6% — or at the very least to have held steady. The fact that it has lost nearly half its users was most disappointing.

What about interoperability tools?

Mercurial and Git do work fairly well together via the hg-git extension, though you may find one or two corner cases where it may not be totally seamless. For example, Git supports octopus merges (where you can merge several branches into one in a single commit) but Mercurial doesn’t, and I’m not sure whether hg-git could handle that consistently. I did also end up with duplicate changesets on one occasion a couple of years ago, though I never got round to looking into exactly why, and it may have been due to a problem that has since been fixed.

Both Git and Mercurial can be used as a front-end to Subversion, and if you are stuck with Subversion I strongly recommend it if possible. However, there are limitations to what you can achieve with these tools, and you lose out on the significant benefits to team workflow that DVCS tools can provide. They are also a very leaky abstraction: Subversion only supports a single line of development on each named branch, for instance, so you will have to make much more extensive use of rebase, which is a riskier and more difficult operation than merging. There are also plenty of ways in which Subversion users can really mess with your day, such as such as renaming a branch, or moving a subtree from one branch to another, or using file externals.

Git can be used alongside TFS with git-tfs, though I wasn’t able to get it to work due to networking issues so I don’t know how well it works.

Should you switch to Git?

My whole point of these posts has been that you can no longer dismiss DVCS out of hand as only being suitable for open source and noisy fanboys, and that you need to take it seriously, no matter how big or small your team. Whether or not you adopt Git wholescale is a different matter that depends on several factors.

As I said, switching your source control system is a major undertaking and not one to be taken lightly. On some existing projects, especially those with a lot of deeply entrenched processes and infrastructure, or long-term contracts in place, it may not even be possible. For projects whose main phase of development is over and which are now in maintenance mode, it’s probably not worth it. In some cases, specialised regulatory requirements may pose additional constraints, though personally I’m sceptical about claims to that effect: contrary to what some vendors will tell you, it’s certainly possible to be ISO9001 or CMMI compliant using Git.

However, it’s becoming abundantly clear now that the writing is on the wall for Subversion. For now, it’s still the most widely used option, and its decline over the past year may have been slower than I expected, but if current trends continue, it will be overtaken by Git industry-wide in about a year’s time. It is a very basic, spartan system even by centralised source control standards and its development is slow. No doubt it will take several years to die off completely (eight percent of developers are still using CVS, believe it or not) but it’s only a matter of time before you will need to plan for its end of life.

Despite its loss of mindshare, I still think Mercurial is worth considering as an alternative to Git. I do wonder how long it can sustain enough momentum to remain viable, but should you need to, switching from Mercurial to Git is almost trivial thanks to hg-git. But certainly for new projects, you need a very convincing reason to stick with old-school centralised source control now. And these reasons are starting to run out.

You can no longer afford not to take Git seriously

There is a blog post about Git that I’ve been wanting to write for a while, but I never got round to. In this, I would have expressed concerns that by being unnecessarily hard to use (with a command-line centric culture, borderline incomprehensible documentation, and some surprising, unintuitive behaviours), and by occupying a dominant position within the DVCS scene, Git was putting 9-5 developers off distributed source control altogether and scoring one own goal after another in the battle to displace Subversion.

That post will never get written. In the light of the results of this year’s Eclipse Community Survey, released yesterday evening, it would be patent nonsense. Those fears have been resoundingly shown to be unfounded.

Git’s market share, industry-wide, is now 27.6%.

Twenty. Seven. Point. Six. Percent.

Wow.

That’s more than I expected in the best-case scenario. Based on its growth rate up to now (it scored 12.8% last year and 6.8% the year before), I was expecting Git to score somewhere between 16% and 24% or so, depending on how well it is being received in corporate environments. If my thesis were correct, I’d have expected it to score at the lower end of this range. I thought that 25% was the maximum it could possibly score in the best case, and even then, that was highly unlikely.

(The news is pretty bleak for Mercurial, by contrast: it has dropped from 4.6% to 2.6%. Subversion is still at number 1 for now, but down from 51% to 46%. This is a smaller drop than I expected, but no doubt it’s being shored up by a trickle of late adopters migrating to it away from CVS. Nevertheless, it looks almost certain to lose its number 1 position within the next 12 months.)

Clearly this result is a game changer.

It means that you can no longer dismiss Git’s mindshare as hype.

It means that, as a Subversion or TFS vendor, you can no longer plausibly claim that Git is only suitable for open source development and hobby projects, and not for corporate and enterprise environments.

It means that, as a recruiter, if you are not using Git, you will find yourself facing an increasing number of competitors who are, and a decreasing pool of candidates who are willing to tolerate the alternatives.

It means that, as a developer, if you’re not already thoroughly familiar with Git, you had better learn it. Now.

It means that, as a diehard Mercurial fan, I have finally had to concede that Git has won.

What is Git’s market share?

Git versus Mercurial arguments annoy me.

They annoy me because they’re fighting the wrong battle. Git fanatics who say that “Git has won” are so intent on killing off Mercurial that they’ve completely lost the plot with the issue that really matters. It’s old-school, inefficient, restrictive, trunk-based tools like Subversion and TFS that are the problem, not Mercurial.

People who say that “Git has won” point to the success of Github. While this is impressive, it doesn’t give the whole picture: a huge proportion of the industry is still stuck with Subversion, and the majority of corporate developers view the Github crowd as a bunch of arrogant prima donnas who believe that passion==competence and who think that they’re high-end developers simply because they blog, use Twitter, and know Ruby on Rails. Uncle Bob Martin is particularly scathing about people like that. Github is also dominated by developer tools and libraries, and seems to be significantly less popular among authors of userland software as far as I can tell.

Unfortunately, sorting out the facts from the hype isn’t easy. Version control surveys seem to be a bit thin on the ground, and usually have inbuilt biases that skew the picture somewhat. The most reliable ones would probably come from a company such as Gartner or Forrester Research, but I’ve found these a bit hard to pin down too. The most recent one that I could find was this survey from Dr Dobbs/Forrester Research (hat tip: David Richards of WANdisco):

Dr Dobbs/Forrester Research SCM survey results 2009

I see no reason to doubt these figures, though they are about three years old now and I haven’t been able to find a more recent repeat of the same survey.

Aside from that, the best I can come up with is the annual Eclipse Community Survey, which is conducted every April. Since Eclipse is an IDE that tends to be widely used in enterprise settings primarily among Java developers, it’s probably the best fit for what I’m looking for, and while it largely filters out the loud Ruby on Rails type fanaticism, it unfortunately also largely ignores the .NET world, which can be infuriatingly conservative at times. However, it does paint a picture in broad brush strokes that gives some indication of how things have been changing since then.

Their figures are as follows:

Year Git Mercurial Subversion
2009 2.4% 1.1% 57.5%
2010 6.8% 3.0% 58.3%
2011 12.8% 4.6% 51.3%

Some observations here:

  • The 2011 survey put Git in third place, just behind CVS (!) in second place with 13.3%. This represents a fivefold increase in two years, which makes it increasingly hard to argue that Git hasn’t yet “crossed the chasm.” The claim that “Git has won,” however, is quite clearly premature, given that Subversion users still outnumber Git users four to one.
  • Mercurial, coming fourth equal alongside Perforce, has a larger market share than I expected given the demographic: I was under the impression that outside of the .NET ecosystem, it was pretty much a lost cause these days. If you were to factor in .NET developers, its mindshare relative to Git would probably be somewhat higher, since many .NET developers are still dissatisfied with Git’s Windows support and usability story. Certainly, if you’re happy with Mercurial and don’t need to contribute to projects on Github, there’s no need to switch to Git on the basis of mindshare alone at this stage.
  • Subversion is starting to lose market share, and I expect this trend to continue if not to accelerate over the next year or two, so you should seriously be evaluating a distributed option for new projects sooner rather than later, otherwise you are at risk of being left behind. However, it’s too early to complain about existing projects still using it, especially if they are surrounded by a lot of process and infrastructure making migration difficult.

It’ll be interesting to see what the 2012 survey reveals, but extrapolating these figures would suggest that current market shares are probably somewhere around 18-20% for Git, 6-7% for Mercurial, and 40-45% for Subversion. This would put Git on course to overtake Subversion to the number 1 slot sometime towards the end of next year.